Gutenberg, Johann (1397-1468), a German printer, believed to have been the first European to print with movable type. Laurens Janszoon Koster of Holland and Pamfilo Castaldi of Italy are thought by some to have preceded him. Gutenberg's name did not appear on any of his work, and details of his life are scant. He is thought to have trained as a goldsmith. He may have invented printing in Strasbourg in 1436 or 1437, but the work attributed to him, including the Mazarin Bible (1455), was done in Mainz. He had to give up his press and types to Johann Fust for debt.